Difference between revisions of "Inside ConTeXt"

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== Cocktails - How To Make A Rum Fix Cocktail ==
+
< [[Main Page]] >
  
[[Image:Example123213213689.jpg]]
+
== Programming Topics ==
  
There are different ways in making '''[http://www.mymixeddrinks.com cocktails]''', it's up on you what kind of '''cocktail''' you would like to make. This article will tell you non how to make a Rum Fix cocktail. Just like any other cocktail a Run Fix cocktail has an ingredients needed to complete it, there is also a step to be followed to get the best taste of it. You will enjoy this recipe for a Rum Fix cocktail. A thirst quenching rum based drink with a splash of lemon taste. Lemon is one of the important ingredients in making  a cocktail it adds some looks to your '''cocktail''' and also adds flavor on it.
+
=== ConTeXt Features ===
 +
* [[Modes]]: Conditional processing of text
 +
* [[Setups]]: An alternative to macros for storing chunks of code
  
[[Image:Example12321321555.jpg]]
+
=== Commands and Arguments ===
 +
* [[System Macros]] (''Recommended reading''. Topics: temporary variables, expansion control, argument grabbing and handling, definitions and assignments, branches and decisions, cases, comma separated lists, assignments and parameters, user interaction.)
 +
* [[Programming in LuaTeX]] (Topic: alleviating the more cumbersome sides of TeX programming.)
 +
* [[Commands with KeyVal arguments|Commands with Key=Value arguments]]: (Topic: things like <code>\command[thiskey=thatvalue]</code>.)
 +
* [[Commands with optional arguments]]: (Topic: one or more optional arguments within brackets.)
  
In making it a rum fix '''[http://www.mymixeddrinks.com cocktails]''' of course first thing to do is to prepare the ingredients like caster sugar, water, lemon juice, dark opr light rum, maraschino cherry, a lemon slice and one of the most important ingredients the ice cubes. Be sure to complete your ingredients before making it to make a good taste in your '''cocktail'''. Now, first step to do is measure and add the sugar, water and lemon juice in the glass. Then, stir contents well with a stirrer or spoon. Add ice cubes to the glass, Measure and add the rum and stir ingredients together again and garnish your '''drink''' with a wedge of lemon and the cherry.
+
=== Module Parameters ===
 +
* [[Module Parameters]]: Passing parameters to modules.
 +
 
 +
=== Programming Techniques ===
 +
* [[Processing Lists]]: Processing lists of values
 +
* [[Counters]]: Manipulating counters in context
 +
* [[Expressions]]: Evaluating expressions of type number, dimen, glue or muglue
 +
* [[executesystemcommand]]: process contents of an environment by another program
 +
* Loops and expansion [http://randomdeterminism.wordpress.com/2009/03/05/tex-programming-the-past-the-present-and-the-future/ (blog post)]
 +
 
 +
=== Debugging ===
 +
 
 +
* [[Console Mode]]: Using ConTeXt on keyboard input directly, rather than loading a <tt>.tex</tt> file.
 +
 
 +
== Using variables ==
 +
 
 +
There are several ways to handle variables in ConTeXt.
 +
The recommended and easiest method is to use the
 +
<tt>\setvariables</tt> and <tt>\getvariable</tt> macros.
 +
Doing it this way you also avoid to get in conflict with
 +
already defined stuff (as variables use their own namespace).
 +
 
 +
To store variables, you can use the <tt>\setvariables</tt>
 +
macro.
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
% stores value in variable namespace:key
 +
\setvariables[namespace][key=value]
 +
% stores the expanded value
 +
\setevariables[namespace][key=value]
 +
% global
 +
\setgvariables[namespace][key=value]
 +
% global and expanded value
 +
\setxvariables[namespace][key=value]
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
Use <tt>\getvariable</tt> to process a variable. Reading an undefined
 +
variable results in the <tt>\empty</tt> token. This is not a serious problem,
 +
as long as you expect text only.
 +
But be warned: the compilation process breaks, if you expect a dimension
 +
or number. So better take care, that you define your variables, before you use them.
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
% gets value of the variable namespace:key
 +
\getvariable{namespace}{key}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
To avoid problems, also pay attention to the following:
 +
 
 +
You can set several variables (same namespace) at the same time.
 +
So the command <tt>\setvariables</tt> logically uses the '''plural''' form
 +
and works with '''square brackets'''.
 +
On the other hand you can only process one variable at the same time, so
 +
<tt>\getvariable</tt> uses the '''singular''' form and works with '''braces'''.
 +
 
 +
OK, here comes a simple example. Let's say, that we want to have variable
 +
space before and after a letter macro called <tt>\Opening</tt>.
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\long\def\Opening#1{%
 +
  \getvariable{Letter:opening}{before}
 +
  \noindent{\begstrut#1\endstrut}
 +
  \getvariable{Letter:opening}{after}
 +
}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
By using variables in your macros, you can separate the layout definition,
 +
so that your macros get much more flexible.
 +
Just ensure, that all variables are set, before you use them!
 +
 
 +
In this example we want to have a blank line in front of the opening, and
 +
two blank lines right after it. The value for the second key contains
 +
square brackets, so it must be enclosed in braces.
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\setvariables[Letter:opening]
 +
  [before=\blank,
 +
  after={\blank[2*big]},
 +
  ]
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
You can now save this style setup (among others) in a separate file and
 +
include it at the start of your document (before <tt>\Opening</tt> is
 +
defined or at least used).
 +
 
 +
And don't forget:
 +
'''Ensure that all variables are set before you use them!'''
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Defining new commands ==
 +
 
 +
=== Special characters in command names ===
 +
 
 +
Some commands have special characters in their names, that TeX normally does not consider to be
 +
letters: <tt>@</tt>, <tt>!</tt> and <tt>?</tt>.  
 +
Before and after the use or definition of such protected commands in your input files, the catcode of these
 +
characters has to be changed. This is done by <cmd>unprotect</cmd> and <cmd>protect</cmd>:
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\unprotect
 +
\def\!test{alfa}
 +
\protect
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
The newly defined command <tt>\!test</tt> can of course only be called upon when we are in the <cmd>unprotect</cmd>ed state, otherwise TeX reads the command <tt>\!</tt>, followed by the word <tt>test</tt> (and probably complains loudly about not being in math mode). These protection/unprotection commands can be nested.  When the nesting becomes deeper than one level, the system reports the current protection level. It is a good habit to always start your macro files with <cmd>unprotect</cmd> and end them with <cmd>protect</cmd>.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Passing verbatim text as macro parameter ==
 +
 
 +
(For passing text to LuaTex verbatim, see the [[Programming_in_LuaTeX#Manipulating_verbatim_text_for_dummies|Programming in LuaTeX]] article on this wiki.)
 +
 
 +
In case you want to write macros that should handle verbatim text,
 +
you can use the tex primitives <tt>\obeyspaces</tt> and <tt>\obeylines</tt>.
 +
<tt>\obeyspaces</tt> changes the category code of the space character,
 +
so that spaces become significant. <tt>\obeylines</tt> does the same for the
 +
newline character.
 +
 
 +
This works fine for the following example:
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\framed{\obeyspaces{A gap from here    to there!}}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
<context>
 +
\framed{\obeyspaces{A gap from here    to there!}}
 +
</context>
 +
 
 +
But if you pass this text as a parameter for your own macro
 +
<tt>\TextWithSpaces</tt>
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\def\TextWithSpaces#1{\framed{\obeyspaces#1}}%
 +
\TextWithSpaces{A gap from here    to there!}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
<context>
 +
\def\TextWithSpaces#1{\framed{\obeyspaces#1}}%
 +
\TextWithSpaces{A gap from here    to there!}
 +
</context>
 +
 
 +
the additional spaces are '''ignored'''.
 +
This happens because the category code change is not yet in effect when
 +
the argument is parsed, and the spaces are removed during parsing.  To keep
 +
the spaces, the catcode change must be done '''before''' the argument is parsed.
 +
 
 +
Here is a two-part solution for the problem (''suggested by Taco Hoekwater''):
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\def\TextWithSpaces{\bgroup\obeyspaces\doTextWithSpaces}
 +
\def\doTextWithSpaces#1{\framed{#1}\egroup}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
Another way is to postpone argument loading (''suggested by Hans Hagen'').
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\def  \TextWithSpaces  {\framed\bgroup\obeyspaces\doTextWithSpaces}
 +
\def\doTextWithSpaces    #1{#1\egroup}
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
Both of these produce the desired result:
 +
 
 +
<context>
 +
\def  \TextWithSpaces  {\framed\bgroup\obeyspaces\doTextWithSpaces}
 +
\def\doTextWithSpaces    #1{#1\egroup}
 +
 
 +
\TextWithSpaces{A gap from here    to there!}
 +
</context>
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Inside ConTeXt]]
 +
[[Category:ConTeXt programming]]

Latest revision as of 07:39, 25 January 2017

< Main Page >

Programming Topics

ConTeXt Features

  • Modes: Conditional processing of text
  • Setups: An alternative to macros for storing chunks of code

Commands and Arguments

  • System Macros (Recommended reading. Topics: temporary variables, expansion control, argument grabbing and handling, definitions and assignments, branches and decisions, cases, comma separated lists, assignments and parameters, user interaction.)
  • Programming in LuaTeX (Topic: alleviating the more cumbersome sides of TeX programming.)
  • Commands with Key=Value arguments: (Topic: things like \command[thiskey=thatvalue].)
  • Commands with optional arguments: (Topic: one or more optional arguments within brackets.)

Module Parameters

Programming Techniques

Debugging

  • Console Mode: Using ConTeXt on keyboard input directly, rather than loading a .tex file.

Using variables

There are several ways to handle variables in ConTeXt. The recommended and easiest method is to use the \setvariables and \getvariable macros. Doing it this way you also avoid to get in conflict with already defined stuff (as variables use their own namespace).

To store variables, you can use the \setvariables macro.

% stores value in variable namespace:key
\setvariables[namespace][key=value]
% stores the expanded value
\setevariables[namespace][key=value]
% global
\setgvariables[namespace][key=value]
% global and expanded value
\setxvariables[namespace][key=value]

Use \getvariable to process a variable. Reading an undefined variable results in the \empty token. This is not a serious problem, as long as you expect text only. But be warned: the compilation process breaks, if you expect a dimension or number. So better take care, that you define your variables, before you use them.

% gets value of the variable namespace:key
\getvariable{namespace}{key}

To avoid problems, also pay attention to the following:

You can set several variables (same namespace) at the same time. So the command \setvariables logically uses the plural form and works with square brackets. On the other hand you can only process one variable at the same time, so \getvariable uses the singular form and works with braces.

OK, here comes a simple example. Let's say, that we want to have variable space before and after a letter macro called \Opening.

\long\def\Opening#1{%
  \getvariable{Letter:opening}{before}
  \noindent{\begstrut#1\endstrut}
  \getvariable{Letter:opening}{after}
}

By using variables in your macros, you can separate the layout definition, so that your macros get much more flexible. Just ensure, that all variables are set, before you use them!

In this example we want to have a blank line in front of the opening, and two blank lines right after it. The value for the second key contains square brackets, so it must be enclosed in braces.

\setvariables[Letter:opening]
  [before=\blank,
   after={\blank[2*big]},
  ]

You can now save this style setup (among others) in a separate file and include it at the start of your document (before \Opening is defined or at least used).

And don't forget: Ensure that all variables are set before you use them!


Defining new commands

Special characters in command names

Some commands have special characters in their names, that TeX normally does not consider to be letters: @, ! and ?. Before and after the use or definition of such protected commands in your input files, the catcode of these characters has to be changed. This is done by \unprotect and \protect:

\unprotect
\def\!test{alfa} 
\protect 

The newly defined command \!test can of course only be called upon when we are in the \unprotected state, otherwise TeX reads the command \!, followed by the word test (and probably complains loudly about not being in math mode). These protection/unprotection commands can be nested. When the nesting becomes deeper than one level, the system reports the current protection level. It is a good habit to always start your macro files with \unprotect and end them with \protect.


Passing verbatim text as macro parameter

(For passing text to LuaTex verbatim, see the Programming in LuaTeX article on this wiki.)

In case you want to write macros that should handle verbatim text, you can use the tex primitives \obeyspaces and \obeylines. \obeyspaces changes the category code of the space character, so that spaces become significant. \obeylines does the same for the newline character.

This works fine for the following example:

\framed{\obeyspaces{A gap from here     to there!}}

But if you pass this text as a parameter for your own macro \TextWithSpaces

\def\TextWithSpaces#1{\framed{\obeyspaces#1}}%
\TextWithSpaces{A gap from here     to there!}

the additional spaces are ignored. This happens because the category code change is not yet in effect when the argument is parsed, and the spaces are removed during parsing. To keep the spaces, the catcode change must be done before the argument is parsed.

Here is a two-part solution for the problem (suggested by Taco Hoekwater):

\def\TextWithSpaces{\bgroup\obeyspaces\doTextWithSpaces}
\def\doTextWithSpaces#1{\framed{#1}\egroup}

Another way is to postpone argument loading (suggested by Hans Hagen).

\def  \TextWithSpaces  {\framed\bgroup\obeyspaces\doTextWithSpaces}
\def\doTextWithSpaces     #1{#1\egroup} 

Both of these produce the desired result: