Difference between revisions of "Layers"

From Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(Add section about delayed font mechanism)
m
 
(14 intermediate revisions by 6 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
< [[Layout]] | [[Columns]] | [[Overlays]] | [[Logos]] | [[Collectors]] >
+
__TOC__
  
'''Layers''' are ConTeXt's mechanism for absolute positioning of elements and other advanced techniques like switching elements on and off.
+
'''Layers''' are ConTeXt's mechanism for absolute positioning of elements and other advanced techniques like switching elements on and off. There’s still '''no manual about them'''.
  
There's still no manual about them.
+
=My first Layer=
 
 
==My first Layer==
 
  
 
Define a layer that takes the whole page
 
Define a layer that takes the whole page
Line 25: Line 23:
 
\setupbackgrounds[page][background=mybg]
 
\setupbackgrounds[page][background=mybg]
 
</texcode>
 
</texcode>
This command makes the contents of the layer appear only once after the background is activated. If you want to repeat the contents of the layer on each page, use the option <code>repeat=yes</code> in the {{cmd|definelayer}} command. Then the contents of the layer will be shown on every page. You can add to these contents by a new {{cmd|setlayer}}[mybg] command. To clear the accumulated contents use {{cmd|resetlayer}}>[mybg]. To make the layer appear on each page, so that it can be populated with different content, set the option <code>state=repeat</code> in {{cmd|setupbackgrounds}}.
+
This command makes the contents of the layer appear only once after the background is activated. If you want to repeat the contents of the layer on each page, use the option <code>repeat=yes</code> in the {{cmd|definelayer}} command. Then the contents of the layer will be shown on every page. You can add to these contents by a new {{cmd|setlayer}}[mybg] command. To clear the accumulated contents use {{cmd|resetlayer}}[mybg]. To make the layer appear on each page, so that it can be populated with different content, set the option <code>state=repeat</code> in {{cmd|setupbackgrounds}}.
  
 
Now you can test the whole thing:
 
Now you can test the whole thing:
Line 53: Line 51:
  
  
==Placement==
+
=Placement=
  
 
There are several possibilities for defining the placement of layer content:
 
There are several possibilities for defining the placement of layer content:
Line 72: Line 70:
 
Similarly you can define your own presets.
 
Similarly you can define your own presets.
  
==State==
+
==Understanding "location" and "corner"==
 +
 
 +
The layer is divided into a 2x2 matrix of squares, where 'x' is the center.
 +
This gets you a total of 3x3=9 different corners.
 +
 +
o---o---o
 +
|  |  |
 +
o---x---o
 +
|  |  |
 +
o---o---o
 +
 
 +
Now you choose one 'corner' (the reference point) for the placement of the content. The content is placed in relation to this point.
 +
The chosen 'corner' c is our new 'center point' (only for placement) now.
 +
 +
With 'location' you define where (in relation to 'corner') the content is placed.
 +
Again you have nine different corners to choose from.
 +
 +
== An example to make this clear ==
 +
 +
Specifications <code>corner={top,right},location={bottom,right}</code> will place content in the area L (outside the original layer).
 +
Think about the 'corner' c as a magnetic grid point, where the content snaps to.
 +
The 'location' defines, from which direction we approach the point c.
 +
 +
* x = layer center point
 +
* c = corner 'top,right'
 +
* d = location 'bottom right'
 +
* L = location (area)
 +
 +
        o---o---o
 +
        |  |  |
 +
----o---c---o
 +
|  |  |  L  |
 +
----x---o---d
 +
|  |  |
 +
---------
 +
 
 +
== An example: placing a logo to the top right corner of the page ==
 +
 
 +
<context source=yes text="gives:">
 +
\definelayer
 +
  [Logo]
 +
  [location={left,bottom},
 +
  x=\paperwidth,y=0mm,
 +
  hoffset=-5mm,voffset=5mm,
 +
  ]
 +
 +
\setlayer[Logo]
 +
  {\framed[width=3cm,height=1cm,background=color,backgroundcolor=lightgray]{Logo...}}
 +
 +
\setupbackgrounds[page][background=Logo]
 +
 
 +
\starttext
 +
  %\showframe
 +
 
 +
  Some text...
 +
\stoptext
 +
</context>
 +
 
 +
Often it makes sense to use a preset (e.g. "lefttop") and move the contents with "hoffset" and "voffset" (positive values move into the page, negative values move into the outer borders).
 +
 
 +
=State=
  
 
The available options for the "state" of a layer are:
 
The available options for the "state" of a layer are:
Line 82: Line 140:
 
* continue: layer appears on all pages except the first
 
* continue: layer appears on all pages except the first
  
==Line breaking and fixed size==
+
=Layers on top=
 +
 
 +
Usually, layers are in the background of your page (or text area). But sometimes you need your layer content on top of the regular content. Then you must set the foreground as one of the backgrounds like this:
 +
 
 +
<texcode>
 +
\setupbackgrounds[page][background={mybacklayer,foreground,myfrontlayer}]
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
The order of backgrounds from left to right is from bottom to top.
 +
 
 +
=Line breaking and fixed size=
  
 
You may experience cases where the defined size of your layer is ignored and you can’t get linebreaking or multiple lines at all.
 
You may experience cases where the defined size of your layer is ignored and you can’t get linebreaking or multiple lines at all.
Line 106: Line 174:
 
         frame=off,
 
         frame=off,
 
         hoffset=0mm, voffset=0mm,
 
         hoffset=0mm, voffset=0mm,
         align=right]%
+
         align=right]                   % You must set align to get multiple lines!
 
         {
 
         {
 
             PRAGMA Advanced Document Engineering\crlf
 
             PRAGMA Advanced Document Engineering\crlf
Line 120: Line 188:
  
  
==Place labels on pictures==
+
=Place labels on pictures=
  
 
Layers can be used to put labels on pictures, alternative ways can be found in the [[manual:details.pdf| Details]] manual
 
Layers can be used to put labels on pictures, alternative ways can be found in the [[manual:details.pdf| Details]] manual
Line 159: Line 227:
 
</context>
 
</context>
  
==Use dynamic content==
+
=Use dynamic content=
  
 
The content of layer is fixed after your set it and will appear in the same way on each page.
 
The content of layer is fixed after your set it and will appear in the same way on each page.
Line 205: Line 273:
 
</texcode>
 
</texcode>
  
 +
[[Setups]], by design, ignore the spaces inside them, so use {{cmd|space}}, {{cmd|crlf}}, {{cmd|par}}, etc., to request spaces, or use {{cmd|startrawsetups}}.
  
Another solution was given by Wolfgang on the mailing list on February 21, 2012. He writes: ''Here is a slightly different version which is better when you need more dynamic layers.''
+
<texcode>
 +
\definelayer
 +
  [pagenumber]
 +
  [width=\paperwidth,
 +
  height=\paperheight,
 +
  preset=middle]
 +
 
 +
\startsetups layer
 +
 
 +
\setlayerframed[pagenumber][align=middle]{Page Number: \par \pagenumber}
 +
 
 +
\stopsetups
 +
 
 +
\setupbackgrounds[page][setups=layer,background=pagenumber]
 +
 
 +
\starttext
 +
\dorecurse{4}{\page[empty]} % You get "Page 1, Page 2" etc.
 +
\stoptext
 +
</texcode>
 +
 
 +
Another solution for dynamic content was given by Wolfgang on the mailing list on February 21, 2012. He writes: ''Here is a slightly different version which is better when you need more dynamic layers.''
  
 
<texcode>
 
<texcode>
Line 229: Line 318:
 
</texcode>
 
</texcode>
  
== Layers and the delayed font mechanism ==
+
= Layers and the delayed font mechanism =
 +
 
 +
'''TL;DR: Setup your fonts before your layers.'''
  
 
Until some years ago the Latin Modern font was always automatically
 
Until some years ago the Latin Modern font was always automatically
Line 256: Line 347:
 
a font needs to be set up beforehand.
 
a font needs to be set up beforehand.
  
== See Also ==
+
= See Also =
  
 +
* An example, [[Alternating backgrounds and repeating layers]] like Watermarks (2007)
 
* Some applications in the [[manual:details.pdf|Details]] manual
 
* Some applications in the [[manual:details.pdf|Details]] manual
 
* [[Sample documents]]: [[BusinessCard]] and [[Letter style]]
 
* [[Sample documents]]: [[BusinessCard]] and [[Letter style]]
 
* Source: [[source:pack-lyr.mkii|pack-lyr.mkii]] or [[source:pack-lyr.mkiv|pack-lyr.mkiv]]
 
* Source: [[source:pack-lyr.mkii|pack-lyr.mkii]] or [[source:pack-lyr.mkiv|pack-lyr.mkiv]]
 
* Example of [[Alternating backgrounds and repeating layers]] and [[Draft Watermark]]
 
* Example of [[Alternating backgrounds and repeating layers]] and [[Draft Watermark]]
 +
* [http://www.ntg.nl/pipermail/ntg-context/2013/070935.html Layer vs. overlay] by Wolfgang
 +
* {{cmd|setupbackgrounds}}
 +
* {{cmd|definelayer}}, {{cmd|setuplayer}}
 +
* {{cmd|setlayer}}, {{cmd|setlayerframed}}
  
 
{{todo|We need a lot of documentation and samples for this complicated subject.}}
 
{{todo|We need a lot of documentation and samples for this complicated subject.}}
  
[[Category:Graphics]] [[Category:Layers]]
+
[[Category:Graphics]] [[Category:Layers]] [[Category:Layout]] [[Category:Basics]]

Latest revision as of 18:19, 8 June 2020

Layers are ConTeXt's mechanism for absolute positioning of elements and other advanced techniques like switching elements on and off. There’s still no manual about them.

My first Layer

Define a layer that takes the whole page

\definelayer[mybg]  % name of the layer
    [x=0mm, y=0mm,  % from upper left corner of paper
     width=\paperwidth, height=\paperheight] % let the layer cover the full paper

Now you can put something in that layer:

\setlayer[mybg]	% name of the layer
    [hoffset=1cm, voffset=1cm]  % placement (from upper left corner of the layer)
    {\framed[frame=on, width=3cm, height=2cm]{LAYER}}  % the actual contents of the layer

Activate the layer as a background:

\setupbackgrounds[page][background=mybg]

This command makes the contents of the layer appear only once after the background is activated. If you want to repeat the contents of the layer on each page, use the option repeat=yes in the \definelayer command. Then the contents of the layer will be shown on every page. You can add to these contents by a new \setlayer[mybg] command. To clear the accumulated contents use \resetlayer[mybg]. To make the layer appear on each page, so that it can be populated with different content, set the option state=repeat in \setupbackgrounds.

Now you can test the whole thing:

\setuppapersize[A10][A9,landscape]
\setuparranging[2UP] % two pages side by side
\showframe % show entire pages

\definelayer[mybg]	% name of the layer
    [x=0mm, y=0mm,	% from upper left corner of paper
     width=\paperwidth, height=\paperheight, % let the layer cover the full paper
     ]

\setupbackgrounds[page][background=mybg]

\setlayer[mybg]	% name of the layer
    [hoffset=0.2cm, voffset=0.2cm]  % placement (from upper left corner of the layer)
    {\framed[frame=on, width=2cm, height=1cm]{LAYER}}  % the actual contents of the layer

\starttext

\dorecurse{2}{\page[empty]} % for testing, to get 2 pages, 1st with layer, 2nd without

\stoptext


Placement

There are several possibilities for defining the placement of layer content:

  • x, y : offset from upper left corner of paper [=the current block; can sometimes be the text area instead of the page/paper!]
  • hoffset, voffset : offset from upper left corner of layer
  • corner : reference point, something like {left, top}
  • location : alignment of the element relative to the corner, something like {right, bottom}
  • preset : a named location, see below

There are some "presets" for paper edge placement:

% These four are defined by ConTeXt!
\definelayerpreset	[lefttop]	[corner={left,top}, location={right,bottom}]
\definelayerpreset	[righttop]	[corner={right,top}, location={left,bottom}]
\definelayerpreset	[leftbottom]	[corner={left,bottom}, location={right,top}]
\definelayerpreset	[rightbottom]	[corner={right,bottom}, location={left,top}]

Similarly you can define your own presets.

Understanding "location" and "corner"

The layer is divided into a 2x2 matrix of squares, where 'x' is the center. This gets you a total of 3x3=9 different corners.

o---o---o
|   |   |
o---x---o
|   |   |
o---o---o

Now you choose one 'corner' (the reference point) for the placement of the content. The content is placed in relation to this point. The chosen 'corner' c is our new 'center point' (only for placement) now.

With 'location' you define where (in relation to 'corner') the content is placed. Again you have nine different corners to choose from.

An example to make this clear

Specifications corner={top,right},location={bottom,right} will place content in the area L (outside the original layer). Think about the 'corner' c as a magnetic grid point, where the content snaps to. The 'location' defines, from which direction we approach the point c.

  • x = layer center point
  • c = corner 'top,right'
  • d = location 'bottom right'
  • L = location (area)
        o---o---o
        |   |   |
----o---c---o
|   |   |   L   |
----x---o---d
|   |   |
---------

An example: placing a logo to the top right corner of the page

\definelayer
  [Logo]
  [location={left,bottom},
   x=\paperwidth,y=0mm,
   hoffset=-5mm,voffset=5mm,
  ]
 
\setlayer[Logo]
  {\framed[width=3cm,height=1cm,background=color,backgroundcolor=lightgray]{Logo...}}
 
\setupbackgrounds[page][background=Logo]

\starttext
  %\showframe

  Some text...
\stoptext

gives:

Often it makes sense to use a preset (e.g. "lefttop") and move the contents with "hoffset" and "voffset" (positive values move into the page, negative values move into the outer borders).

State

The available options for the "state" of a layer are:

  • start: layer appears only on the current page
  • stop: layer doesn't show up
  • repeat: layer prints on all pages
  • next: layer appears on the following page
  • continue: layer appears on all pages except the first

Layers on top

Usually, layers are in the background of your page (or text area). But sometimes you need your layer content on top of the regular content. Then you must set the foreground as one of the backgrounds like this:

\setupbackgrounds[page][background={mybacklayer,foreground,myfrontlayer}]

The order of backgrounds from left to right is from bottom to top.

Line breaking and fixed size

You may experience cases where the defined size of your layer is ignored and you can’t get linebreaking or multiple lines at all. This is due to \setlayer using \hbox internally. You can work around the problem using \setlayerframed:

\setuppapersize[A6]

\definelayer[AddressBg][
    x=20mm, y=30mm, 
    width=65mm, height=30mm, 
    state=start] % size is ignored!
\setupbackgrounds[paper][
    setups=ALayer, 
    background=AddressBg, 
    state=start]

\starttext
\strut
\startsetups ALayer
    \setlayer[AddressBg]           % Change this to \setlayerframed to get it to work
        [width=65mm, height=30mm,
         frame=off,
         hoffset=0mm, voffset=0mm,
         align=right]                    % You must set align to get multiple lines!
        {
            PRAGMA Advanced Document Engineering\crlf
            Mr. Hans Hagen (the wizard who wrote it all, \CONTEXT\ and everything else, 
                with the help of his little elves)\crlf
            Ridderstraat 27\crlf
            8061GH Hasselt\crlf
            THE NETHERLANDS
        }
\stopsetups
\stoptext


Place labels on pictures

Layers can be used to put labels on pictures, alternative ways can be found in the Details manual (see also Collectors).

\setupexternalfigures[location={local,default}]
% (necessary for the wiki conTeXt live processor)

\definelayer  [figure][width=\overlaywidth,height=\overlayheight]
\defineoverlay[figure][{\directsetup{figure}\tightlayer[figure]}]

\setupcolors[state=start]

\starttext

\startsetups figure

\setlayerframed
  [figure]
  [preset=rightbottom,
   x=.25\layerwidth,
   y=.25\layerheight]
  {\green HERE}

\setlayerframed
  [figure]
  [preset=leftbottom,
   x=.15\layerwidth,
   y=.35\layerheight]
  {\red THERE}

\stopsetups

\externalfigure[cow][background={foreground,figure},width=4cm,height=3cm]

\stoptext

Use dynamic content

The content of layer is fixed after your set it and will appear in the same way on each page.

\definelayer
  [pagenumber]
  [width=\paperwidth,
   height=\paperheight,
   preset=middle,
   state=repeat]

\setlayer[pagenumber]{Page \pagenumber}

\setupbackgrounds[page][background=pagenumber]

\starttext
\dorecurse{4}{\page[empty]} % Every page will say "Page 1"
\stoptext

This is not always what you desire like in the example above, where on each page the current page number should be shown and not the number from the first page.

To recalculate the content on each new page you have to enclose the \setlayer settings within \startsetups ... \stopsetups and write \setupbackgrounds[page][setups=setupname,background=layername] in your document.

\definelayer
  [pagenumber]
  [width=\paperwidth,
   height=\paperheight,
   preset=middle]

\startsetups layer

\setlayer[pagenumber]{Page \pagenumber}

\stopsetups

\setupbackgrounds[page][setups=layer,background=pagenumber]

\starttext
\dorecurse{4}{\page[empty]} % You get "Page 1, Page 2" etc.
\stoptext

Setups, by design, ignore the spaces inside them, so use \space, \crlf, \par, etc., to request spaces, or use \startrawsetups.

\definelayer
  [pagenumber]
  [width=\paperwidth,
   height=\paperheight,
   preset=middle]

\startsetups layer

\setlayerframed[pagenumber][align=middle]{Page Number: \par \pagenumber}

\stopsetups

\setupbackgrounds[page][setups=layer,background=pagenumber]

\starttext
\dorecurse{4}{\page[empty]} % You get "Page 1, Page 2" etc.
\stoptext

Another solution for dynamic content was given by Wolfgang on the mailing list on February 21, 2012. He writes: Here is a slightly different version which is better when you need more dynamic layers.


\definelayer  [pagenumber][width=\overlaywidth,height=\overlayheight,preset=middle]
\defineoverlay[pagenumber][\texsetup{layer}]

\startsetups layer

\setlayer[pagenumber]{Page \pagenumber}

\tightlayer[pagenumber]

\stopsetups

\setupbackgrounds[page][setups=layer,background=pagenumber]

\starttext
\dorecurse{4}{\page[empty]}
\stoptext

Layers and the delayed font mechanism

TL;DR: Setup your fonts before your layers.

Until some years ago the Latin Modern font was always automatically loaded, regardless of the users choice of font. Font loading takes a considerable amount of time (check the stats at the end of a context run to get an idea). This led to the question:

“Why start loading a big, complex font like Latin Modern before we know which font the user actually wants to use and waste several seconds on it, just to start loading the users choice afterwards?”

The answer was:

”We delay loading the font until we know which font the user wants to use. If the user doesn't tell us, then we fall back to Latin Modern.”

The body font is set up in the setup area (the part above \starttext). That, in turn, means that when having reached \starttext, the users choice of font is known and can be loaded. It is more efficient if a font other then Latin Modern is used.

One drawback is that typeset text in the setup area has no font setup and will fall back to Latin Modern Mono. Usually no text is typeset in the setup area. However, layers are an exception and a font needs to be set up beforehand.

See Also


TODO: We need a lot of documentation and samples for this complicated subject. (See: To-Do List)